How to create LVM partition with partition alignment in Virtual machine (VM)

lvm

Request vmware team to provide the new disk to VM

# cat /proc/partitions 
major minor  #blocks  name

 253     0   20971520 vda
 253     1     104391 vda1
 253     2   20860402 vda2
 252     0   18776064 dm-0
 252     1    2064384 dm-1

Scan from the available host to detect the new disk

#echo " - - - " >> /sys/class/scsi_host/host0/scan
#echo " - - - " >> /sys/class/scsi_host/host1/scan

Run cat /proc/partitions again to locate the new disk. From the below output hda is new 5 GB disk

# cat /proc/partitions 
major minor  #blocks  name

   3     0    5242880 hda
 253     0   20971520 vda
 253     1     104391 vda1
 253     2   20860402 vda2
 252     0   18776064 dm-0
 252     1    2064384 dm-1

Format the new with partitiion alignment

# fdisk /dev/hda
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
content won't be recoverable.

Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-652, default 1): 
Using default value 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-652, default 652): 
Using default value 652

Command (m for help): t
Selected partition 1
Hex code (type L to list codes): 8e
Changed system type of partition 1 to 8e (Linux LVM)

Command (m for help): x

Expert command (m for help): b 
Partition number (1-4): 1
New beginning of data (63-10474379, default 63): 128

Expert command (m for help): r

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/hda: 5368 MB, 5368709120 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 652 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/hda1               1         652     5237126   8e  Linux LVM

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root

Validate the disk successfully partitioned with partition alignment

# fdisk -ul /dev/hda

Disk /dev/hda: 5368 MB, 5368709120 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 652 cylinders, total 10485760 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/hda1             128    10474379     5237126   8e  Linux LVM

Run partprobe command to make the partition visible to the OS.

# partprobe /dev/hda

# partprobe /dev/hda1

# fdisk -ul /dev/hda

Disk /dev/hda: 5368 MB, 5368709120 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 652 cylinders, total 10485760 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/hda1             128    10474379     5237126   8e  Linux LVM

Add the disk to Physical volume (PV)

# pvs
  PV         VG         Fmt  Attr PSize  PFree
  /dev/vda2  VolGroup00 lvm2 a--  19.88G    0 

# pvcreate /dev/hda1
  Writing physical volume data to disk "/dev/hda1"
  Physical volume "/dev/hda1" successfully created

# pvs
  PV         VG         Fmt  Attr PSize  PFree
  /dev/hda1             lvm2 a--   4.99G 4.99G
  /dev/vda2  VolGroup00 lvm2 a--  19.88G    0 

Create new Volume Group or extend the existing volume group using new disk

# vgs
  VG         #PV #LV #SN Attr   VSize  VFree
  VolGroup00   1   2   0 wz--n- 19.88G    0 

# vgcreate vg0 /dev/hda1
  Volume group "vg0" successfully created

# vgs
  VG         #PV #LV #SN Attr   VSize  VFree
  VolGroup00   1   2   0 wz--n- 19.88G    0 
  vg0          1   0   0 wz--n-  4.99G 4.99G

Create new Logical Volume (LV)

# lvs
  LV       VG         Attr   LSize  Origin Snap%  Move Log Copy%  Convert
  LogVol00 VolGroup00 -wi-ao 17.91G                                      
  LogVol01 VolGroup00 -wi-ao  1.97G                                      

# lvcreate -L4G -n lvm1 vg0
  Logical volume "lvm1" created

]# lvs
  LV       VG         Attr   LSize  Origin Snap%  Move Log Copy%  Convert
  LogVol00 VolGroup00 -wi-ao 17.91G                                      
  LogVol01 VolGroup00 -wi-ao  1.97G                                      
  lvm1     vg0        -wi-a-  4.00G                                      

Make the LV as ext3 partition.

# mkfs.ext3 /dev/vg0/lvm1 
mke2fs 1.39 (29-May-2006)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
524288 inodes, 1048576 blocks
52428 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=1073741824
32 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
16384 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
	32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736

Writing inode tables: done                            
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 28 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

Create the new directory to mount the newly created LVM

# mkdir /data

Make an enty in /etc/fstab for new lVM

# vim /etc/fstab 

# cat /etc/fstab 
/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 /                       ext3    defaults        1 1
LABEL=/boot             /boot                   ext3    defaults        1 2
tmpfs                   /dev/shm                tmpfs   defaults        0 0
devpts                  /dev/pts                devpts  gid=5,mode=620  0 0
sysfs                   /sys                    sysfs   defaults        0 0
proc                    /proc                   proc    defaults        0 0
/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01 swap                    swap    defaults        0 0
/dev/vg0/lvm1           /data                   ext3     defaults       0 0 

Mount newly created lvm

# mount /data/

Run df -h command and Validate that filesystem is successfully mounted.

# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00
                       18G  2.3G   15G  14% /
/dev/vda1              99M   13M   82M  14% /boot
tmpfs                 502M     0  502M   0% /dev/shm
/dev/mapper/vg0-lvm1  4.0G  137M  3.7G   4% /data

Goto the directory and create some files to make sure that new filesystem is writable.

# cd /data/
# touch 1 2 3 4
# ll
total 16
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root     0 Nov  3 11:30 1
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root     0 Nov  3 11:30 2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root     0 Nov  3 11:30 3
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root     0 Nov  3 11:30 4
drwx------ 2 root root 16384 Nov  3 11:22 lost+found
# 

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